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  #1  
02-10-2014, 05:53 AM
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05.Biomedical Engineering



05- Biomedical Engineering


05.Biomedical Engineering

BIOELECTRIC PHENOMENA
The application of engineering principles and technology to

medicine and biology has had an increasing influence on the

practice of medicine. The most visible of these contributions

is in the form of medical devices. This article, however, de
scribes the engineering introduction of quantitative methods

in the field of bioelectricity. When such contributions first be
came evident, in the early 1950s many physiology researchers

were already employing modern quantitative methods to de
velop and utilize governing equations and suitable models of

bioelectric phenomena. Today it appears that systems physiology
lives on as biomedical engineering, while physiology has
become more concerned with cell and molecular biology. On
the other hand, biomedical engineering is also currently involved
in efforts to develop and apply quantitative approaches
at cellular and molecular levels.


This article, which is concerned with the electric behavior
of tissues, reviews what is known about the biophysics of excitable
membranes and the volume conductor in which they
are imbedded. Our approach emphasizes the quantitative nature
of physical models. We formulate an engineering descrip-
tion of sources associated with the propagating action potential
and other excitable cellular phenomena. With such
sources and a mathematical description of fields generated in
a volume conductor the forward problem, namely a determi-
nation of the potential field at the body surface from underlying
bioelectric activity, can be formulated.

The cardiac forward problem starts with a quantitative description
of the sources in the heart; the resulting body surface
potentials are known as the electrocardiogram. In a similar
way sources associated with the activation of skeletal
muscle lead to the electromyogram. We will also consider the
electroencephalogram and electrogastrogram, where we will
discover bases for sources other than propagating action potentials.
We consider these applications of basic theory only
in an introductory way, because there are separate articles for
each. It is the goal of this article to elucidate the underlying
principles that apply to each of the aforementioned and
other applications.



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المواضيع المشابهه
الموضوع كاتب الموضوع المنتدى مشاركات آخر مشاركة
Engineering Materials for Biomedical Applications سعد الدين كتب الهندسة الطبية الحيوية والبيولوجية 3 02-10-2014 04:21 PM
Introduction to Biomedical Engineering سعد الدين كتب الهندسة الطبية الحيوية والبيولوجية 3 01-10-2014 11:32 PM
Practical Applications in Biomedical Engineering سعد الدين كتب الهندسة الطبية الحيوية والبيولوجية 4 30-09-2014 06:18 PM
Biomedical Engineering & Design Handbook, Vol 1-2 سعد الدين كتب الهندسة الطبية الحيوية والبيولوجية 3 27-09-2014 07:38 PM
Wiley - Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering - 6 Vol. Set سعد الدين كتب الهندسة الطبية الحيوية والبيولوجية 3 27-09-2014 07:17 PM
  #2  
02-10-2014, 09:01 AM
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