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برامج تحرير الفيديو وتحويل الصيغ وبرامج الصوتيات والملتيميديا : برامج الفيديو, برامج المونتاج, برامج دمج و تقطيع الافلام, برامج فصل الصوت عن الصورة

Freeze Thaw Resisting Concrete - DTI Concrete Society and CIRIA C559

Books Freeze Thaw Resisting Concrete - DTI Concrete Society and CIRIA C559

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كتاب
Freeze Thaw Resisting Concrete - DTI Concrete Society and CIRIA C559
Freeze Resisting Concrete Concrete Society CIRIA


Introduction
The relatively low level of incidence of serious freeze-thaw damage in the UK generally suggests that the measures taken to combat the problem, or measures taken for other purposes, eg chloride resistance, are normally very effective, while bearing in mind that the incidence of severe freeze-thaw conditions has been less over, say, the last ten years.

Only for the following situations has it been suggested that current preventative measures have not been wholly successful:

flat horizontal surfaces, eg pavements, aprons and other exposed slabs saturated concrete structures exposed to severe freeze-thaw conditions, eg sea walls
and other marine structures; water storage structures.

Reports in the literature of deterioration in 271 structures in the UK and elsewhere were investigated by the BCA (1 997) on behalf of the Department of the Environment. The incidence with respect to freeze-thaw damage is summarised in Table 1.1 for different types of structure. Road and airfield pavements were not included in the survey.



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