من منا ممن عمل في التحليل اﻹحصائي باستخدام الحاسب اﻵلي قبل 10 سنوات ﻻ يتذكر البرنامج اﻹحصائي الشهير على ال DOS و المعروف ب CoStat. برنامج رائع و جميل و سهل .
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رقم اﻹصدار CoStat Version 6.3
an easy-to-use program for data manipulation and statistical analysis. CoStat is included with CoPlot and CoPlot Pro* but is also sold separately.
* Use a spreadsheet with any number of columns and rows.
CoStat's spreadsheets can contain different types of data (floating point* integer* date* time* degrees* text* etc.).
* Import data from almost anywhere.
Import ASCII* Excel* MatLab* S+* SAS* Genstat* Fortran* and many other types of data files.
* Manipulate the data any way you want.
CoStat has lots of procedures for transforming the data* rearranging it* etc.
* Analyze the data with a wide range of statistical procedures.
CoStat has ANOVA* multiple comparisons of means* correlation* descriptive statistics* analysis of frequency data* miscellaneous tests of hypotheses* nonparametric tests* regression (curve fitting) (new.gif world's best subset selection in multiple regression)* statistical tables* and utilities.
* Automate repetitive tasks with macros.
CoStat can auto-record your actions in simple macros* or you can program sophisticated macros with the macro programming language.
* Use CoStat from the command line* batch files* shell scripts* pipes* and other programs.
If you bypass the graphical front end of CoStat* you can use CoStat as the statistics engine for your programs on a web site.
CoStat's Statistical Procedures
CoStat has a wide range of statistical procedures.
* Each procedure has a short description in its dialog box.
* Statistical results are sent to a text editor window (CoText)* where they can be viewed* edited* printed* and saved to a file.
Here is a list of the procedures:
* ANOVA (See a description and sample run.)
o CoStat's ANOVA procedure can do ANOVAs with:
+ Missing values
+ Unbalanced designs
+ Up to 10 factors
+ User-specified models
o Sums of Squares Types - CoStat can calculate Type I* Type II* and Type III sums of squares.
o Pre-Defined Models - CoStat comes with numerous models already defined. This makes it very easy to set up the ANOVA -- just pick the model from a list. You don't have to write a Model statement as you do in SAS.
+ 1* 2* 3* and 4 way completely randomized
+ 1* 2* and 3 way randomized blocks
+ 2 and 3 way nested
+ Split plot
+ Split-split plot
+ 2 variations of split block
+ Latin square
+ Several models with covariance
o Defining Models - If you need a model that hasn't been pre-defined* you can modify an existing model or create your own model. The simple little language which describes the models is fully described in the manual. The system lets you easily:
+ Make variations of the existing models
+ Create your own new models
+ Change the format of the ANOVA table
+ Specify which term provides the df and MS values for each F test
+ Specify contrasts.
+ Re-use the models with other data files
o Bartlett's Test - Before performing the ANOVA* CoStat performs Bartlett's Test for Homogeneity of Variances* one of the assumptions of ANOVA.
o Contrasts - You can specify any contrast that you want (for example* you can compare treatment 1 vs. treatments 2* 3* and 4).
o Means Comparisons Tests - After performing the ANOVA* CoStat can automatically run a means comparisons test (for example* Duncan's* Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK)* Tukey-Kramer* Tukey's HSD* or Least Significant Difference (LSD)).
* Compare Means - performs SNK* Duncan's* LSD* Tukey's HSD* or the Tukey-Kramer test for multiple comparisons of means. These test are also available as part or the ANOVA procedure.
* Correlation - calculates correlation coefficient; slope and Y intercept of linear regression; standard errors.
* Descriptive Statistics - calculates n* sum* mean* standard deviation* variance* coefficient of variation* skewness* kurtosis* maximum* minimum* tests of normality (D'Agostino-Pearson K^2 Test)* tests for outliers (Dixon's Test* Grubbs' Test* Inter-Quartile-Range). The procedure makes it easy to select subsets of the data for analysis.
* Analysis of Frequency Data (See a description and sample run.)
o Cross tabulation of string or numeric data.
o Calculation of expected frequency of normal* binomial* or Poisson distributions.
o Goodness of Fit Tests - Kolmogorov-Smirnov* Likelihood Ratio (G test)* and Chi-square tests of goodness of fit.
o Fisher's Exact Test.
o Log-linear analysis of 3 way tables.
* Miscellaneous Tests
o Confidence Limits of a Correlation Coefficient
o Confidence Limits of a Mean
o Confidence Limits of a Regression Coefficient (Slope)
o Equality of Two Means (equal variances) (t Test)
o Equality of Two Means (unequal variances) (t test)
o Equality of Two Percentages (G test)
o Equality of Two Variances (F Test)
o Homogeneity of Correlation Coefficients
o Homogeneity of Linear Regression Slopes
o Homogeneity of Variances (Using n and Variance Data) (Bartlett's Test)
o Homogeneity of Variances (Using Raw Data) (Bartlett's Test)
o Mean+/-2SD - summarized data in a format that it is easy to plot in CoPlot.
o Single Observation and a Mean (t Test)
* Nonparametric Tests (See a description and sample run.)
o Percentiles - calculates nonparametric descriptive statistics: mode and percentiles.
o Rank Correlation - Kendall's and Spearman's Rank Correlation Tests are analogous to the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient.
o 2 Runs Tests - Up and Down* and Above and Below the Median
o Tied Ranks - ranks the values in a column* replaces ties with the average rank* then inserts a new column with the tied rank values.
o 1 Way* Completely Randomized ANOVA - using the Kruskal-Wallis Test.
o 1 Way* 2 Treatment* Completely Randomized ANOVA - using the Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon Two Sample Test.
o 1 Way* Randomized Blocks ANOVA - using Friedman's Method for Randomized Blocks.
o 1 Way* 2 Treatment* Randomized Blocks ANOVA - using Wilcoxon's Signed-Ranks Test for Two Groups.
* Regression (Curve-Fitting)
o Polynomial regressions of any order (linear* quadratic* cubic* quartic* ...). (See a description and sample run.)
o Periodic (Fourier) curve fitting ( y = b0 + b1cos(x) + b2sin(x) + b3cos(2*x) + b4sin(2*x) + ...).
o Multiple linear regression.
+ Full model (See a description and sample run.)
+ One subset
+ new.gif World's best subset selection in multiple regression
(All Subsets and several approximate procedures* including the Simons2 procedure which does a dramatically better job of finding the best subsets).
(See a description and sample run.)
Different versions of CoStat include different subset selection procedures:
# CoStat includes the All Subsets* Replace 1* and Replace 2 procedures.
# CoPlot includes a version of CoStat with the All Subsets* Replace 1* Replace 2 and Simons 1 procedures.
# CoPlot Pro includes a version of CoStat with the All Subsets* Replace 1* Replace 2* Simons 1* and Simons 2 procedures.
o Linearizable nonlinear regressions (several types): Square Root (y=a+b*x^0.5)* Power (y=a*x^b)* Inverse (y=a+b/x)* Inverse Power (y=a*e^(b/x))* Hyperbola (y=x/(a*x+b))* Exponential (y=a*e^(b*x))* Logarithmic (y=a+b*ln(x))* Hoerl's (y=a*x^b*e^(c*x))* y=1/(a+b*e^-x)* y=e^(a+b*x)* and y=1-e^(-a*x)
o True nonlinear regressions using the Nelder and Mead Simplex Algorithm. You enter any equation. It will interatively search for the best values for the unknowns. (See a description and sample run.)
o Solve simultaneous linear equations.
* Tables - calculates the probability associated with a given test statistic* or the reverse (the statistic associated with a given probability). The tables included are:
o Chi-square distribution
o F distribution
o Normal distribution
o t distribution (2 tailed)
The procedure can also calculate the z transformation of a correlation coefficient and its inverse.
o Data Area - Given x and y data columns* this calculates the area under the curve.
o Data Interpolate X Y - Given x and y data columns and an x value* this interpolates values between the data points to find the corresponding y value. Or* given y* it finds x.
o Date <-> Julian Date - converts Year-Month-Date date values to/from Julian dates (1899-12-31 = day 1).
o Degrees°Min'Sec" <-> Degrees.dd - converts Degrees°Min'Sec" values to/from decimal degrees values.
o Factorials - Given an integer* n* this calculates n factorial* often written as n!.
o Functions Closest - This finds the x value where two functions are closest.
o Function Equals Y - Given a y value* this finds where the x value where a function evaluates to y. This is useful for calculating an LD50.
o Function Evaluate - This procedure evaluates an equation at a series of x values.
o Function Integrate - This procedure numerically integrates an equation.
o Function Minima - Given an x value* this procedure finds a nearby minima.
o Function Maxima - Given an x value* this procedure finds a nearby maxima.
o Permutations And Combinations - Given the number of items picked and the size of the population* this procedure calculates the number of permutations and combinations.
o Random Numbers - This will create a series of random integers in a specific range.
o Time <-> Seconds - converts Hours:Minutes:Seconds.Decimal time values to/from seconds values.
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User: Roland Sneif
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