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05-07-2014, 11:46 PM
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Basics of Retaining Wall Design - 9th Edition


Basics Retaining Wall Design Edition

كتاب
Basics of Retaining Wall Design - 9th Edition

Basics Retaining Wall Design Edition



Note !!
This document contains only
selected pages from the full
document.
The intent is to give you an idea of
the content, quality, and illustrations
of the full book.
Thank you for taking look inside!

Evolution of Retaining Structures
1. ABOUT RETAINING WALLS: TERMINOLOGY
In the year one-million BC, or thereabouts, an anonymous man, or woman, laid a row of stones atop another row to keep soil from sliding into their camp. Thus was constructed an early retaining wall, and we've been keeping soil in place ever since…… with increasingly better methods and understanding.
The early engineers in the ancient cultures of Egypt, Greece, Rome and the Mayans were masters at invention and experimentation, learning primarily through intuition and trial-and-error what worked and what didn't We marvel at their achievements. Even the most casual observer looks in wonder at the magnificent structures they created and have stood for thousands of years – including countless retaining walls. With great skill they cut, shaped, and set stone with such precision that the joints were paper thin. Reinforced concrete would not be developed for a thousand years, but they used what they had, and learned how to do it better with each succeeding structure. Consider the Great Wall of China, for example, where transverse bamboo poles were used to tie the walls together – a forerunner of today’s “mechanically stabilized earth”. Those early engineers also discovered that by battering a wall so that it leaned slightly backward the lateral pressure was relieved and the height could be extended – an intuitive understanding of the soil wedge theory. Any student of ancient construction methods is awed by the ingenuity and accomplishments of those early engineers.
Major advances in understanding how retaining walls work and how soil generates forces against walls appeared in the 18th and 19th
centuries with the work of French engineer Charles Coulomb 1776, who is better remembered for his work on electricity, and later by William Rankine in 1857. Today, their equations are familiar to most civil engineers. A significant body of work was the introduction of soil mechanics as a science through the pioneering work of Karl Terrzaghi in the 1920s.
Indeed, soil mechanics and the design of retaining structures has advanced dramatically in recent decades giving us new design concepts, a better understanding of soil behavior, and hopefully safer and more economical designs.


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المواضيع المشابهه
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09-07-2014, 05:17 AM
raedms غير متصل
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جزاك الله كل خير


سبحان الله وبحمده سبحان الله العظيم


20-09-2017, 05:08 AM
c1366 غير متصل
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    #4  
!can you repost the link, thank you

06-10-2017, 12:31 AM
bill_dwnld غير متصل
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Thank you

06-10-2017, 03:32 AM
fadyaziz غير متصل
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    #6  
this book contains pages that were omitted so please stop fooling us

 


Basics of Retaining Wall Design - 9th Edition

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