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03-06-2004, 04:35 PM
saloom غير متصل
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    #1  

ما هو الهارديسك؟ (إنجليزي)


الهارديسك؟ (إنجليزي)

الهارديسك؟ (إنجليزي)

في البداية أود ان اوضح للأخوة الكرام عن اسفي لطرح هذا الموضوع باللغة الإنجليزية
وذلك بعدم تو فر المصادر العربية الواضحة لشرح مثل هذا الموضوع
ولكن من لديه مثل هذه المصادر او من يجد في نفسه القدرة على ترجمة النصوص الإنجليزية
فاليتفضل مشكورا في ذلك.

إخواني الكرام، كثير جدا من الناس من يسمي جهاز الكمبيوتر (اقصد هنا بالCPU) بالهارديسك من دون معرفة ما هو الهارديسك اصلا. فلهذا احببت ان اقدم تعريف بسيط لما هو الهارديسك ومواصفاته ووضائفه ارجو ان ينا إعجابكم.

ونسألكم الدعاء

في البداية أقدم لكم تعريف الهارديسك:

HDD:




الهارديسك؟ (إنجليزي)

الهارديسك؟ (إنجليزي)

الهارديسك؟ (إنجليزي)

الهارديسك؟ (إنجليزي)

الهارديسك؟ (إنجليزي)

الهارديسك؟ (إنجليزي)




A storage device that uses a set of rotating, magnetically coated disks called platters to store data or programs. In everyday use, the terms "hard disk," "hard disk drive," and "hard drive" are all used interchangeably, because the disk and the drive mechanism are a single unit. A typical hard disk platter rotates at up to 3600 rpm, and the read/write heads float on a cushion of air from 10 to 25 millionths of an inch thick so that the heads never come into contact with the recording surface. The whole unit is hermetically sealed to prevent airborne contaminants from entering and interferring with these close tolerances. Hard disks range in capacity from a few tens of megabytes to several gigabytes of storage space; the bigger the disk, the more important a well-thought out backup strategy becomes. Hard disks are very reliable, but they do fail, and usually at the most inconvenient moment.






www.angelfire.com/ny3/diGi8tech/HGlossary.html








A storage device based on a fixed, permanently mounted disk drive. It may be either internal (part of the computer itself) or external (a separate but connected component). Both applications and data may be stored on the disk.



An electromechanical device used to store digital data on rotating disks.



– Storage device incorporating one or more hard disk platters, read/write heads, and low-level control circuitry.



the storage device usually fixed inside of your computer used to store information. See the Hardware Primer for more information.



This is like a record - for those of you old enough to remember records! - Youngsters will be more familiar with CDs and indeed in concept a hard disk drive is not that different. It is a piece of silicone which is set up like a vast microscopic library. It is used as a digital ‘larder’ where programmes and data can be safely stored in order that they can be recalled at a moment’s noticed and read again.



– Enclosed disk drive that contains one or more metallic disks for data storage. A hard disk has many times the capacity of a diskette.



The mechanism that controls the positioning, reading, and writing of the hard disk, which furnishes the largest amount of data storage for the PC. Although the hard disk drive (often shortened to "hard drive") and the hard disk are not the same thing, they are packaged as a unit and so either term is sometimes used to refer to the whole unit. Head The HTML tag used to enclose the beginning elements in the HTML document, including the title.



The main storage device of a computer. They are the fastest and have the greatest storage space among storing media. Most are stationary (non-removable), but some companies make removable hard drive disks as well.



Most hard disk drives are permanently connected to the computer and read and store information.



High-capacity magnetic disk for data storage and program files. Also called a fixed disk.



Secondary storage device containing nonremovable disks. 1.5, 1.7, 3.6



A device that stores data on spinning disk platters.



Enclosed disk drive that contains one or more metallic disks for data storage. A hard disk has many times the capacity of a diskette.










Hard Disk Drive





In a personal computer, a hard disk drive (HDD) is the mechanism that controls the positioning, reading, and writing of the

hard disk, which furnishes the largest amount of data

storage for the PC. Although the hard disk drive (often shortened to "hard drive") and the hard disk are not the same thing, they are packaged as a unit and so either term is sometimes used to refer to the whole unit.

A hard disk is part of a unit, often called a "disk drive," "hard drive," or "

hard disk drive," that stores and provides relatively quick access to large amounts of data on an electromagnetically charged surface or set of surfaces. Today's computers typically come with a hard disk that contains several billion bytes (

gigabytes) of

storage.

A hard disk is really a set of stacked "disks," each of which, like phonograph records, has data recorded electromagnetically in concentric circles or "tracks" on the disk. A "head" (something like a phonograph arm but in a relatively fixed position) records (writes) or reads the information on the tracks. Two heads, one on each side of a disk, read or write the data as the disk spins. Each read or write operation requires that data be located, which is an operation called a "seek." (Data already in a

disk cache, however, will be located more quickly.)

A hard disk/drive unit comes with a set rotation speed varying from 4500 to 7200 rpm. Disk access time is measured in milliseconds. Although the physical location can be identified with cylinder, track, and sector locations, these are actually mapped to a logical block address (

LBA) that works with the larger address range on today's hard disks.








disk cache






A disk cache is a mechanism for improving the time it takes to read from or write to a

hard disk. Today, the disk cache is usually included as part of the hard disk. A disk cache can also be a specified portion of random access memory (

RAM). The disk cache holds data that has recently been read and, in some cases, adjacent data areas that are likely to be accessed next. Write caching is also provided with some disk caches.

The other type of hardware cache inside your computer is

cache memory. Also see

cache.

logical block addressing (LBA)


Logical block addressing is a technique that allows a computer to address a hard disk larger than 528 megabytes. A logical block address is a 28-

bit value that maps to a specific cylinder-head-sector address on the disk. 28 bits allows sufficient variation to specify addresses on a hard disk up to 8.4 gigabytes in data storage capacity. Logical block addressing is one of the defining features of Enhanced IDE (

EIDE), a hard disk interface to the computer

bus or data paths.

EIDE


Enhanced (sometimes "Expanded") IDE is a standard electronic interface between your computer and its mass storage drives. EIDE's enhancements to Integrated Drive Electronics (

IDE) make it possible to address a hard disk larger than 528 Mbytes. EIDE also provides faster access to the hard drive, support for Direct Memory Access (

DMA), and support for additional drives, including CD-ROM and tape devices through the AT Attachment Packet Interface. When updating your computer with a larger hard drive (or other drives), an EIDE "controller" can be added to your computer in one of its

card

slot.

To access larger than 528 Mbyte drives, EIDE (or the

basic input/output system that comes with it) uses a 28-bit Logical Block Address (

LBA) to specify the actual cylinder, head, and sector location of data on the disk. The 28 bits of the LBA provide enough information to specify unique sectors for a device up to 8.4 GB in size.

EIDE was adopted as a standard by

ANSI in 1994. ANSI calls it Advanced Technology Attachment-2 (it's also referred to as "Fast

ATA").

IDE


IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) is a standard electronic

interface used between a computer

motherboard's data paths or

bus and the computer's disk storage devices. The IDE interface is based on the IBM PC Industry Standard Architecture (

ISA) 16-bit

bus standard, but it is also used in computers that use other bus standards. Most computers sold today use an enhanced version of IDE called Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics (

EIDE). In today's computers, the IDE controller is often built into the motherboard.

IDE was adopted as a standard by American National Standards Institute (

ANSI) in November, 1990. The ANSI name for IDE is Advanced Technology Attachment (

ATA). The IDE (ATA) standard is one of several related standards maintained by the T10 Committee.

ANSI

ANSI (American National Standards Institute) is the primary organization for fostering the development of technology standards in the United States. ANSI works with industry groups and is the U.S. member of the International Organization for Standardization (

ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (

IEC).

Long-established computer standards from ANSI include the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (

ASCII) and the Small Computer System Interface (

SCSI).

ATA

ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment) is the official name that

American National Standards Institute group X3T10 uses for what the computer industry calls

Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE).


ASCII

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the most common

format for

text

files in computers and on the Internet. In an ASCII file, each alphabetic, numeric, or special character is represented with a 7-

bit

binary number (a string of seven 0s or 1s). 128 possible characters are defined.



Unix and

DOS-based operating systems use ASCII for text files. Windows NT and 2000 uses a newer code,

Unicode. IBM's

S/390 systems use a proprietary 8-bit code called

EBCDIC. Conversion programs allow different operating systems to change a file from one code to another.

ASCII was developed by the American National Standards Institute (

ANSI).







SCSI






SCSI (pronounced SKUH-zee and sometimes colloquially known as "scuzzy"), the Small Computer System Interface, is a set of

ANSI standard electronic interfaces that allow personal computers to communicate with peripheral hardware such as disk drives, tape drives, CD-ROM drives, printers, and scanners faster and more flexibly than previous interfaces. Developed at Apple Computer and still used in the Macintosh, the present set of SCSIs are

parallel interfaces. SCSI ports continue to be built into many personal computers today and are supported by all major operating systems.

In addition to faster data rates, SCSI is more flexible than earlier parallel data transfer interfaces. The latest SCSI standard, Ultra-2 SCSI for a 16-bit

bus can transfer data at up to 80 megabytes per second (MBps). SCSI allows up to 7 or 15 devices (depending on the bus width) to be connected to a single SCSI port in daisy-chain fashion. This allows one circuit board or card to accommodate all the peripherals, rather than having a separate card for each device, making it an ideal interface for use with portable and notebook computers. A single host adapter, in the form of a

PC Card, can serve as a SCSI interface for a laptop, freeing up the parallel and serial ports for use with an external modem and printer while allowing other devices to be used in addition.

Although not all devices support all levels of SCSI, the evolving SCSI standards are generally backwards-compatible. That is, if you attach an older device to a newer computer with support for a later standard, the older device will work at the older and slower data rate.

The original SCSI, now known as SCSI-1, evolved into SCSI-2, known as "plain SCSI." as it became widely supported. SCSI-3 consists of a set of primary commands and additional specialized command sets to meet the needs of specific device types. The collection of SCSI-3 command sets is used not only for the SCSI-3 parallel interface but for additional parallel and serial protocols, including

Fibre Channel, Serial Bus Protocol (used with the IEEE 1394

FireWire physical protocol), and the Serial Storage Protocol (SSP).

A widely implemented SCSI standard is Ultra-2 (sometimes spelled "Ultra2") which uses a 40 MHz clock rate to get maximum data transfer rates up to 80 MBps. It provides a longer possible cabling distance (up to 12 meters) by using low voltage differential (LVD) signaling. Earlier forms of SCSIs use a single wire that ends in a terminator with a ground. Ultra-2 SCSI sends the signal over two wires with the data represented as the difference in voltage between the two wires. This allows support for longer cables. A low voltage differential reduces power requirements and manufacturing costs.

The latest SCSI standard is Ultra-3 (sometimes spelled "Ultra3")which increases the maximum burst rate from 80 Mbps to 160 Mbps by being able to operate at the full clock rate rather than the half-clock rate of Ultra-2. The standard is also sometimes referred to as Ultra160/m. New disk drives supporting Ultra160/m will offer much faster data transfer rates. Ultra160/m also includes cyclical redundancy checking (

CRC) for ensuring the integrity of transferred data and domain validation for testing the SCSI network.

Currently existing SCSI standards are summarized in the table below.





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كيف تختار الهارديسك المناسب؟ (إنجليزي) saloom صيانة الكمبيوتر وحلول الحاسب الألي - هاردوير 2 08-06-2004 11:04 PM

04-06-2004, 06:35 AM
System غير متصل
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    #2  
مشكوووور أخوي على
المجهود الذي بذلته بطرحك للموضوع
مجهود تشكر عليه
بارك الله فيك
لاتحرمنا جديدك



04-06-2004, 02:33 PM
Charchabil غير متصل
عضو ماسـي
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    #3  
جزاك الله خيراً على الموضوع المتعوب على جمعه أخي سلوم


اللهم إني عبدك ابن عبدك ابن أمتك، ناصيتي بيدك، ماضِ في حكمك، عدل في قضاؤك، أسالك بكل اسم هو لك، سميت به نفسك أو أنزلته في كتابك، أو علمته أحداً من خلقك أو استأثرت به في علم الغيب عندك، أن تجعل القرآن ربيع قلبي ونور صدري وجلاء حزني وذهاب همي

 


ما هو الهارديسك؟ (إنجليزي)


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